· The motive behind working is not only to earn for ourselves, but also to support our dependents.
· Being employed gives a sense of self-worthiness and dignity as well as recognition in the society.
· Above all, a working employee not only earns for himself/herself, but he/she also contributes to the national income of the country.
Features of Employment
· A study on the employment types and the living style of people gives an information on the following areas −
- National income
- Employment structure
- Management of human resources, etc.
· The study helps us analyse the different levels of employment and the levels of income generated by different sectors that contributes to the national income.
· On the basis of employment study, we can address the persistent social issues such as poverty, child labour, exploitation, etc
· When we calculate all the goods and services produced in a year, it is known as Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
· When we add all the earning of exports and deduct the amount paid for import, the final number is known as Gross National Product (GNP).
· If the export is greater than the import, then the GNP’s measurement is on positive side and if the export is lesser than the import, then it is on negative side.
· Employment in India is multifaceted. There are people who are permanently unemployed; and there are people who are temporarily employed or temporarily unemployed (known as seasonal unemployment/employment).
· On the other hand, a task that requires only 5 workers to handle it, is being handled by 12 workers. This condition is known as disguised unemployment.
· Among all the workers of the country −
o 70 percent of the workforce are men.
o Three-fourth of the workforce is from rural areas.
o Women workers account to one-fifth of the total workforce (in urban areas).
· Population refers to a group of people living in a given area in a given time period.
· As per the 2009-10 data, about 39 persons of every 100 persons, are employed.
· In urban areas, the number of employed people is 36 per 100 persons, whereas, it is about 40 per 100 persons in rural areas.
· People in the urban areas are more literate, and they have more options to look out for a permanent job. This could mainly be the reason for this gap.
· The number of female workers in rural areas (25/100 women) is more than in urban (15/100 women) areas.
· The income of the male counterpart in the urban areas is high. Hence, the need for a female member of a family to go and earn does not arise,
· The disparity between self-employed workers and salaried workers is also high.
· In India, there are more number of men as salaried workers than women.
Types of Service Sector
Service sector is categorised into the following −
· Primary sector − It includes agriculture and other related works.
· Secondary sector − It includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, and electricity, gas, water supply, etc.
· Tertiary sectoror Services sector − It includes trade, transport and storage, and services.
· Primary sector has the maximum percentage of work force, i.e., about 66% in rural area and 9% in urban area.
· In the primary sector, men account to about 43% and women account to about 62.8% of the workforce.
· The total percentage of workforce in the primary sector accounts to about 48.9%.
· Secondary sector has 16% of the workforce in rural areas and 31% of the workforce in urban areas.
· In secondary sector, women account to about 20% of the workforce and men account to about 25.9 percent of the workforce.
· The total percentage of workforce in secondary sector accounts to about 24.3%.
· Tertiary or Service sector has 17.4% of the workforce in rural areas and about 60% of the workforce in urban areas.
· In tertiary sector, women account to about 17.2% of the workforce and men account to about 30.5% of the workforce.
· The total percentage of workforce in tertiary sector is about 26.8%.